Oftentimes found in the retina, bipolar cells are crucial as they serve as both direct and indirect cell pathways. The specific location of the bipolar cells allow them to facilitate the pathway of signals both where they start in the receptors as well as where they arrive at the ganglion cells. Bipolar cells in the retina are also unique as they do not fire impulses like the other cells found within the retina. Rather, bipolar cells have a receptive-field that surrounds them. Therefore, bipolar cells may exist as off-center or on-center. The off-center bipolar cells possess excitatory relationships with the synapses and are hyperpolarized by light. On-center bipolar cells have inhibitory synapses and therefore are suppressed in the dark.
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