Common chimpanzees use strength, intelligence, and political alliances to establish and maintain alpha position. Alpha males who solely use intimidation and aggression to keep their position often provoke dissent. Coalitions will eventually form, which at some point will topple the alpha male. [unreliable source?] There have been rare cases where a group has killed the alpha male. Common chimpanzees show deference to the alpha of the community by ritualized postures and gestures such as presenting their back, crouching, bowing, or bobbing. [verification needed] Chimpanzees lower in rank than the alpha male will offer their hand while grunting to the alpha male as a sign of submission. Bonobo society on the other hand is governed by alpha females. Males will associate with females for rank acquisition because females dominate the social environment. If a male is to achieve alpha status in a bonobo group, he must be accepted by the alpha female. Female bonobos use homosexual sex to increase social status. High-ranking females rarely interact sexually with other females, but low-ranking females interact sexually with all females.
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